Christian, Glynna K. “Joint-Ventures: Understanding Licensing Issues.” The licensing newspaper. October 2005. Because of the legal basis they have to cover, some licensing agreements are quite lengthy and documents complex. But most of these agreements cover the same fundamentals. These include the scope of the agreement, including restrictions on exclusivity or territories; financial aspects, such as necessary advances, royalties and royalty calculations; Guarantees for minimum sales Calendars with “on-the-market” dates, contract duration and renewal options; the lessor`s rights to quality monitoring and control, including procedures to follow; Minimum inventories that need to be maintained and returns and allowances. One of the most important elements of a licensing agreement is the financial agreement. Payments made by the licensee to the licensee are usually made in the form of guaranteed minimum payments and royalties for sales. Royalties are generally between 6 and 10 per cent, depending on the ownership and the degree of experience and sophistication of the licensee.
Not all licensees need guarantees, although some experts recommend that licensees receive as much compensation in advance as possible. In some cases, licensees use warranties as the basis for renewing a licence agreement. If the taker completes the minimum sales figures, the contract is renewed; Otherwise, the licensee has the option of terminating this relationship. Licensing agreements cover a large number of known situations. For example, a retailer could enter into an agreement with a professional sports team for the development, manufacture and sale of goods bearing the sports team logo. Or a small manufacturer could concede a production technology owning a larger company to gain a competitive advantage rather than investing the time and money to develop its own technology. Or a greeting card company can agree with a movie distributor to create a series of greeting cards that carry the image of a popular animated character. Another common element of licensing agreements is the party that retains control over copyrights, patents or trademarks. Many contracts also contain a provision on territorial rights or distribution in different parts of the country or the world.
In addition to the various clauses included in the licensee protection agreements, some licensees may add their own requirements. They may insist on the guarantee that the licensee owns, for example, the property`s property rights, or they may insert a clause prohibiting the licensee from directly competing with the property granted in certain markets. Technology licensing is not limited to manufacturing.