Signed Reciprocity Agreements

The last major attempt at reciprocity was negotiated by the Laurier government in 1911. This reciprocity agreement provided for the free trade of natural resources and the reduction of tariffs on many other products. The agreement was accepted by the U.S. Congress. September 1911 rejected by the Canadians, who ousted the Liberals in the general election of September 21, 1911. After Confederation, Canadians wanted to extend the reciprocity agreement with the United States. Political leaders John A. Macdonald, George Brown, Charles Tupper and others made pilgrimages to Washington, without success. A notable disappointment was Macdonald`s failure to include a high degree of reciprocity in the 1871 Washington Treaty. The treaty gave U.S.

fishermen access to the N.B.A.`s Atlantic inshore fishery. It also allowed BNA fishermen to fish U.S. coastal waters north of 36 degrees N latitude. The treaty introduced free trade with a considerable number of natural resources. Trade between the United States and the colonies increased sharply after 1854. However, factors other than the reciprocity agreement, such as the Canadian railway boom and the effects of the American Civil War (1861-1865), were largely responsible. During the civil war, Britain worked tacitly with the southern states. At the end of the war, northern politicians were angry with Britain for its support of the South. They sought to end reciprocity with the British colonies. Along with the other breaches found in the treaty, the United States rescinded the treaty on March 17, 1866 (cancelled it). Before 1852, British diplomats had tried unsuccessfully to negotiate a reciprocity agreement in Washington. His former prominent lawyer in Upper Canada was the politician and businessman William Merritt.

The reciprocity contract was signed on June 6, 1854 by Governor GENERAL Lord Elgin and U.S. Secretary of State William Marcy. It was passed by the U.S. Congress in August. The treaty is expected to remain in force for ten years. It could then be terminated by both parties with a one-year delay. A new and more comprehensive agreement was signed in 1938. It granted additional concessions to Canada to those in the 1935 agreement. However, the 1938 agreement was suspended in 1948 after the two countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the 1980s, The Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney negotiated the Canada-U.S.

Free Trade Agreement. It was signed in 1988 by Mulroney and U.S. President Ronald Reagan. Like previous reciprocity agreements, it has removed many barriers to trade between the two countries. It was replaced in 1994 by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, the United States and Mexico. The reciprocity movement began in earnest between 1846 and 1850. It has become an important theme in Canada West (present-day Ontario) and the maritime colonies, particularly New Brunswick. It was sparked by a dispute over the rights of American fishermen in the coastal waters of British North America (BNA). Both governments have been working to find a comprehensive settlement. After 1911, reciprocity played a less important role in Canada-U.S. relations. In 1935, the Mackenzie King Administration negotiated a trade agreement.

In terms of removing trade barriers, it was much less important than the 1854 treaty. In the 1880s, a broad free trade agreement was advocated by Canadian businessmen. Erastus Wiman and Richard Cartwright were among the supporters. It has been described as a “trade union” or “total reciprocity.” However, these proposals were rejected in the 1891 Canadian election.